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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disease of nervous system that possess symptoms which continue and become worse over time. It is the second commonest neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, and in the UK, has a lifetime prevalence of between 0.1 and 0.3% of the population. The basic reason behind this condition is malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in brain. In normal conditions nerve cells present in the brain produces a neurotransmitter called dopamine that is responsible for signalling movement, emotions and co-ordination but in the case of diseased individual dopamine production slows down, hence the individual become unable to control the movement normally. There is no cure but treatment involves medication and surgery. Slowness of voluntary movements, reduced facial appearance, repetitious tongue, and diminished eye flashing, A shuffling gait with deprived arm swing and curved posture, Shaky stability; difficulty rising from a sitting position, Swallowing problems in later stages.
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder and the cause of it remained a mystery to the scientific community. Researchers say by exposing to harmful chemicals and Pesticides mutations occurs in the genes and results in neurological disorders. With age, the condition of disease increases exponentially and men are in higher proportion to prone compared to women. On an average 10million individuals are found to be suffering from Parkinson’s disease, from where only four present of people with Parkinson’s disease are diagnosed before the age of 50. An estimated of 40% to 60% of Parkinson disease patients suffering from depression. United States stands in the fourth position in considering the death of people due to Parkinson’s disease.
Neurons are the specialized cells that are responsible for communication, when they cannot produce signals communication between nervous system breaks and results in neuromuscular disorders. Most of these disorders are thought be inheritable and treatment is given to improve the life of patient and no cure is available to completely eradicate the condition.
Huntington’s disease is inherited from Parents and often symptoms will be more like Parkinson’s disease which include problem with mood, mental abilities, Swallowing, Speaking, Sleep Disturbances followed by loss of co-ordination and unsteady gait. A gene called HTT (Huntingtin) which is responsible for coding protein Huntingtin, if any mutation to that gene it will cause disturbances in the brain and results in death of brain cell and leads to Huntington’s disease. Abnormalities with the mutant huntingtin include Cardiac Failure, Weight Loss, Osteoporosis, reduced glucose level. This condition is normally observed in the individuals under the age of fifties.
Symptoms and progression of disease will not be similar among the suffering individuals but people with Parkinson’s are at higher rate of developing related risks. Developing these conditions is not a certainty, only a possibility. Knowing the conditions can help a person with Parkinson’s disease or associated symptoms and helps to take preventative measures for a better life. Parkinson’s disease has a chance of creating mental ailment which can be mild or serious. It includes cognition (early stage symptoms), mood, and behaviour which are considered as major impairment when compared to normal population. The common mood alterations seen in the patients are despair, eagerness, indifference.
Parkinson’s disease is originated because of the gradual loss of cells in the substantia nigra of the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that transmits signals between two regions of the brain to coordinate activities like movement of limbs. If there is deficiency in dopamine production results in loss of co-ordination and end up with symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. As the disease progresses, nervous system and brain degenerates causing a higher movement disorder.
Early stage identification of Parkinson’s disease is difficult but includes some imaging studies. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and CT (computer tomogram) are used by many physicians to find out other relating Parkinson’s diseases such as encephalitis, Tumours, Hydrocephalus. Level of dopamine release and activity of brain can easily detect using PET and SPECT examining.
The known cause of Parkinson’s disease is reduced level of dopamine production by neurons in the brain but surprisingly the main cause was malfunctioning of cell organelles like mitochondria leads to increased oxidative stress which in turn results in cell death and finally ends with Parkinson’s disease with motor and non-motor symptoms. The reason may be both genetic and environment factors.
No cure has been identified to Parkinson’s disease, but use of drugs can slow down the progression. Normally prescribed by physicians include change of life style, regular aerobic exercise and prescribed therapeutic supplement. It is noted that people will have beneficial effect who are taking co-enzyme Q10 during their initial stage of disease. It is unclear how genetically changes cause Parkinson disease or influence the risk of developing the disorder. Some gene mutations (alterations) such as LRRK 2, PARK 7, PINK 1, PRKN disturb the cell mechanism that breaks down undesired proteins in neurons which are responsible for dopamine production. Hence, under graded proteins accumulate, resulting in death of vital nerve cells and subsequently lowers the level of dopamine production. In most cases of Parkinson disease, protein deposits called Lewy bodies. It is unclear whether Lewy bodies play a key role in killing nerve cells or just part of the cells which are responsible to the disease. Yoga, massage, acupuncture, meditation, music or art therapy, alexander technique is also regarding as best methods to control neurological disorders particularly Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and neuropsychiatric. Tetrabenazine, neuroleptics, mirtazapine can be taken to for treating chorea.
Presently Deep brain stimulation is widely recommended for improving people suffering with Parkinson’s disease one is deep brain stimulation (DBS) and is performed by inserting a tube in the small intestine and is used to treat a variety of deactivating neurological symptoms most commonly the draining symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), such as tremor, rigidity, stiffness, slowed movement, and walking problems. There will be no effect with using DBS to healthy brain tissue by terminating nerve cells. Instead the procedure blocks electrical signals from targeted areas in the brain.
Free radicles have both beneficial and baleful effect to human body. These are produced with in the body by metabolism and enters body through external sources such as pollution, radiation, therapeutics etc; Oxidative stress is known to cause many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS). With oldness, there is a typical failure of the dopamine producing neurons. Out of surprise 2% of the 1 million people with the disease are thought to be below the age of fifty. In some of the rare situations symptoms are seen in children and teens and it is known as juvenile Parkinsonism.
The commonly used drug to treat Parkinson’s disease is Levodopa which has higher frequency to develop motor Fluctuations and results in L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Since the Characteristic key cause of Parkinson’s disease is reduced production level dopamine by neurons, research studies developed a molecule called LXR (Liver X Receptor) where it has got potential to reduce the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Researchers propose novel ideas to treat Parkinson’s disease to reduce the risk of causing side effects, frequency of dyskinesia, to treat cognitive disorders such as anxiety and depression.